Cbc mac for real time data sources

Block ciphers represent encryption algorithms that are based on a symmetric key and operate on a single block of data.

Modern ciphers are based on Claude Shannon's work on product ciphers in A cipher mode of operation is an algorithm that uses a block cipher and describes how to repeatedly apply a cipher to transform large amounts of data consisting of many blocks. Most modern ciphers also require an Initialization Vector IV to ensure distinct ciphertexts even if the same plaintext is entered repeatedly.

There are several modes of operation such as:. Data is divided into blocks and each is encrypted individually.

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Identical blocks will produce identical ciphers which makes this mode relatively weak. CFB depends on the previous block cipher to provide input to the current cipher being generated.

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Because of the dependency of previous ciphers, CFB cannot be processed in parallel. Streaming ciphers allows for a block to be lost in transit but subsequent blocks can recover from the damage. Counter CTR : Turns a block cipher into a stream cipher but uses a counter. The incrementing counter feeds each block cipher in parallel allowing for fast execution. The nonce and counter are concatenated together to feed the block cipher.

These modes provide encryption for the confidentiality of information but will not protect against modification or tampering. The incoming stream contains an encrypted authentication tag. An "expected tag" is formed from this phase of the algorithm. The data is encrypted; however, the only relevant data needed for authentication is the calculated tag. This ensures both the secrecy and authenticity of the origin of a message:.

To comment please Log In. This process is called function stitching, [13] and while in principle it can be applied to any combination of cryptographic algorithms, GCM is especially suitable. Manley and Gregg [14] show the ease of optimizing when using function stitching with GCM.

They present a program generator that takes an annotated C version of a cryptographic algorithm and generates code that runs well on the target processor. GCM has been criticized for example by Silicon Labs in the embedded world as the parallel processing is not suited to performant use of cryptographic hardware engines and therefore reduces the performance of encryption for some of the most performance-sensitive devices.


According to the authors' statement, GCM is unencumbered by patents. GCM has been proven secure in the concrete security model. The authentication strength depends on the length of the authentication tag, as with all symmetric message authentication codes. The use of shorter authentication tags with GCM is discouraged. The bit-length of the tag, denoted t , is a security parameter.

CBC MAC for Real-Time Data Sources | SpringerLink

In general, t may be any one of the following five values: , , , , or For certain applications, t may be 64 or 32, but the use of these two tag lengths constrains the length of the input data and the lifetime of the key. Moreover, GCM is neither well-suited for use with very short tag-lengths nor very long messages. Ferguson and Saarinen independently described how an attacker can perform optimal attacks against GCM authentication, which meet the lower bound on its security.

Eventually, H may be compromised entirely and the authentication assurance is completely lost. Independent of this attack, an adversary may attempt to systematically guess many different tags for a given input to authenticated decryption and thereby increase the probability that one or more of them, eventually, will be accepted as valid. For this reason, the system or protocol that implements GCM should monitor and, if necessary, limit the number of unsuccessful verification attempts for each key.

CBC Byte Flipping Attack—101 Approach

Saarinen described GCM weak keys. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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In Paillier, P. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Retrieved 20 July Note that there is a typo in the formulas in the article. File Download PDF. References E. Petrank and C. Cryptology, Vo1. Scientific American. Information Technology-security techniques-data integrity mechanism using a cryptographic check function employing a block cipher algorithm.

International Organization for Standards, Geneva, Switzerland.

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Cipher Block Chaining Mode - Applied Cryptography

Killian and P. The security of the cipher block chaining message authentication code. JCSS, Vol. Springer-Verlag, A. Perrig, R.